07 January 2010

Management of Radiation Accident victim

Physician and Hospital Responses to Radiological Incidents
By: Robert E Henkin, MD, FACNP, FACR
Professor of Radiology
Director, Nuclear Medicine

Robert H. Wagner, MD, MSMIS
Associate Professor of Radiology
Section on Nuclear Medicine/Department of Radiology
Loyola University
Maywood, IL

Experience of Authors

* Dr Wagner trained at Loyola and the DOE in Oak Ridge - Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS)
* Drs Wagner and Henkin co-wrote the original manual for hospital management that was used by the State of Illinois
* Dr Wagner is has been consultant for Radiation Management Consultants since 1990 and trains and drills approximately 5 hospitals/year until 1998. Developed the plan for radiation accidents at Loyola

* Dr Henkin is a member of the Radiation Information Network of the American College of Nuclear Physicians
* Drs Wagner and Henkin are Board Certified by ABNM

Radiation and Terrorism
* Public perceptions of radiation
* The good news and the bad news
* Terrorism scenarios
* Types of radiation injuries
* Hospital response to radiation incidents

The Public Perceptions
The Bad News
* Almost nothing creates more terror than radiation
o It’s invisible to touch, taste, and smell
o Most people have unrealistic ideas about radiation
o Most physicians don’t even understand it
* The objective of the terrorist is as much or more panic than it is physical harm

The Good News

* Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy professionals are well trained in the fundamentals of radiation
* Respect radiation, but do not fear it
* Understand what radiation can and cannot do
* There have been industrial radiation accidents that we have learned much from
* It is easily detected in contrast to biological and chemical agents

What Can We Expect?
* Radiological/Nuclear Terrorism
o A true nuclear detonation
o A failed nuclear detonation
o Radiation dispersal device
* Power Plant attacks

A Nuclear Detonation
* Least likely scenario (fortunately)
* Most likely from a stolen nuclear weapon
* Results would be devastating, both psychologically and in terms of damage

The Unthinkable
* Effects of a 1 megaton detonation in Chicago
o 30% of all hospitals destroyed in 50 mile radius
o Transportation and infrastructure compromised
o Emergency vehicles and professionals unable to respond
o Walking wounded with burns may have been fatally irradiated – unknown effects for days to weeks

Radiological Devices
* Not a “nuclear explosion”
* Consists of a bomb designed to disperse radioactive materials in air and water
o Designed to create panic
o Difficult to clean up, material spreads
o Biological effects may take years to appear
* “A Dirty War” HBO/BBC Films 2005

Failed Nuclear Detonation
* Most likely from an improvised nuclear device (IND)
* Beyond the scope of an individual terrorist – would need 10-15 people
* Greatest barrier is availability of weapons grade material
* Would create a critical mass or explosion, but not the same degree as a true nuclear detonation.
* Nuclear material needs to stay in contact for a longer period of time to allow flux to form

Radiological Dispersal Device
* The most likely scenario
* Simply a bomb loaded with radioactive materials
* Uses stolen hospital or industrial materials
* Acute effects are limited to psychological and traumatic injury
* Long term effects would be on contamination of large areas
* Huge expense for cleanup

Chernobyl Comparison
Co-60 food irradiation pencil in a RDD
Radiation Levels
* Inner ring – same as permanently closed around Chernobyl
* Middle ring – same as permanently controlled area around Chernobyl
* Outer ring – same as periodically controlled zone around Chernobyl

Cancer Deaths
Co-60 food irradiation pencil in a RDD

Increase risk of cancer
* Inner ring – 1 per 100 people
* Middle ring – 1 per 1,000 people
* Outer ring – 1 per 10,000 people

What do I Need to Know?
* Fundamental Radiobiology
o Radiation effects are delayed
o Burns if you see them are chemical or thermal in origin.
o Dose limits
* Key personnel
* Contamination control
* Focus on the medical problems

1. Radiation - Fundamentals
* Types of Radiation
* All radiation is part of the electromagnetic spectrum
* This spectrum ranges from infrared through radio/TV transmission and beyond
* Ranges of common exposures

Radiation - Definition
* Energy that is transferred through space
* Examples
o Microwaves
o Radio waves
o Visible Light
o Nuclear radiation (Alpha, Beta, Gamma)
o X-Radiation

Effectiveness of a Lead Apron
Percent Stopped
Don’t wear one during an accident!
Measurement Units
* Roentgen – radiation dose measured in air
* Radiation Absorbed Dose (RAD) – a pseudo biologic unit
* Gray – 100 RADS
* Radiation Effective Dose Man (REM) – a biologically corrected dose
* Millrem - .001 REM

We Live in Radioactive World
* Naturally occurring radioactive elements abound
* Cosmic radiation
* Man-made radiation accounts for less than 1% of total radiation
* Average human dose 150 to 170 mR/year
* Dose varies by geographic location

Low Level Radiation 500 - 5,000 mR
High Level Radiation 5- 50 R
Decrease In Sperm Count (transient)
High Level Radiation 500- 5,000 R
LD 50/60 (Estimated With Intensive Support - Possible BMT)
Neurological syndromes
Typical Therapy for Cancer (Divided Doses)
Contamination In Perspective

Radiation Injuries
* Dependent on dose
o Non-Stochastic effects (Dose related)
+ Decrease in sperm count – 15 R
+ Hematological effects – 150 R
+ Gastrointestinal effects, epilation – 300 R
+ CNS effects – 1000 R
o Stochastic Effects (Non-dose related)
+ Increase in cancer risk
+ Genetic abnormalities
Burns From Radiation
* Generally do not appear immediately
* Healing is extremely poor
* Not likely to be seen in the acute setting

2. Introduction to Radiobiology
* Mechanism of Cellular Injury
* Comparison of Tissue Sensitivities
* Dose Effect Relationships
* Genetic Effects
* Carcinogenic Effects
* Embryonic and Fetal Effects
* How to Limit Exposure
Mechanism of Cellular Injury
Biological Effects of Radiation Depend on:
* Total Dose Received
* Rate of Exposure
* Total or Partial Body
Radiation In Perspective
Genetic Effects
Radiation In Perspective
Carcinogenic Effects
Embryonic and Fetal Effects
Methods of Decreasing Exposure to Staff

* Time – linear relationship
* Distance – geometric relationship
* Shielding – half value layers.....

What’s My Role?

* Learn the institutional protocols
* Do not wait for the disaster to train
* Know who and where your resources are
* Do not contribute to panic with uninformed statements
* Refer questions to the scene commanders

Management of Radiation Accident victim

All links posted here are collected from various websites. No video or powerpoint files are uploaded on this blog. If you are the original author and do not wish to display your content on this blog please Email me anandkumarreddy at gmail dot com I will remove it. The contents of this blog are meant for educational purpose and not for commercial use. If you use any content give due credit to the original author.

This site uses cookies from Google to deliver its services, to personalise ads and to analyse traffic. Information about your use of this site is shared with Google. By using this site, you agree to its use of cookies.

  © Blogger templates Newspaper III by Ourblogtemplates.com 2008

Back to TOP